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Kidney Stone /Renal caliculi

Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.


Calcium stones

Struvite stones - form in response to an infection, such as a urinary tract infection.

Uric acid stones

Cystine stones

Other stones - rarer types of kidney stones also can occur.


  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts of urine

 Why kidney stones form in some people and not others? :

  • Too little fluid intake
  • Chronic urinary tract infections
  • Misuse of certain medications
  • Urinary tract blockage
  • Limited activity for several weeks
  • Certain genetic and metabolic diseases
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